Crane, all you need to know about this heavy load machinery

Undoubtedly, a crane is an essential machine for industries that perform work at heights, movements of heavy loads, among others that could not be done only with the strength of the staff. That is why now we have to talk and learn more about this team that makes it much easier to work in different companies.

Since, though, hydraulic cranes may be simple in design but can perform difficult tasks that would otherwise seem impossible. In a matter of minutes, these machines are capable of lifting poles on the roads, lifting heavy equipment in factories and even lifting heavy machines that will be moved to the mine.

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What is a crane?

A crane according to the definition given by Wikipedia is a machine used to lift and distribute loads in space suspended from a hook. Therefore a crane is the machine that facilitates the loading, unloading, lifting and handling of a heavy object or that is of great volume. Thus the aforementioned website also refers to the different definitions given to each type of crane in general. So we have to:

1. A tower crane: It is a machine that is specially designed as a tool to work in the construction sector.
2. A truck crane: It is a vehicle that has a crane incorporated into its chassis. These vehicles are usually trucks, which can be of different sizes.
3. Tow Truck: It is a vehicle crane, designed to tow cars that are in an emergency.
4. A ship crane: It is a machine that has an element for lifting loads or provisions.

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Characteristics of a crane

In general, the general characteristics of these cranes are formed by a metal structure, which can also have a hydraulic or a horizontal mobile arm, called telescopic. From the latter hangs a cable with a hook that serves to lift very heavy things and to transport them from one place to another at short distances.

And all this can be done because they have grooved pulleys, which have a counterweight, with simple mechanisms, etc. All this is to create mechanical advantage and thus achieve moving large and heavy loads. However, the design of the crane will change depending on what function they will acquire the machinery.

How does a hydraulic crane work?

A crane with a hydraulic system is based on a simple concept called the transmission of forces from one point to another through a fluid. Most hydraulic machines use some type of incompressible fluid, a liquid that is at its maximum density. Oil is the most commonly used incompressible fluid for hydraulic machines, including hydraulic cranes.

Which works when a piston pushes down on the oil, the oil transmits all the original force to a piston, which is driven upwards. That is, when one piston is pushed down, another piston is pushed up. A hydraulic pump creates the pressure that moves the pistons and the pressure in the hydraulic system is created by one of two types of hydraulic pumps, which can be a variable displacement pump and gear pump.

In a nutshell it can be said that most cranes use gear pumps that have a pair of gears to press the hydraulic oil. When the pressure must increase, the operator pushes the accelerator pedal to operate the pump faster. In a gear pump, the only way to get high pressure is to run the engine at full power.

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These pistons can be extended or reduced, and when these pistons are connected to a lever system, the pistons can be used to lift surprisingly heavy loads, as do hydraulic cranes. Remember that to operate efficiently and maintain their vital stability, all cranes must obey the laws of physics.

Parts of a crane

1. Base: The base is an important part of the crane also called frame, which includes the anchor points and bearings for the rotation of the column.
2. Column: It is the structure that supports the hydraulic boom system.
3. System of arms: Structural member in the system of the boom of the loader crane.
4. Stabilizers: Helps the supporting structure connected to the vehicle to give the required stability. They can carry a raised control post, that is to say a seat fixed to the column of the loader crane or a platform placed on the base of the loader crane.
5. Carrier vehicle: In this case it is the truck that has the crane incorporated.

Classes and types of cranes

There are different types of cranes designed especially for a type of maneuver or work oriented to a specific sector. For example for construction companies, the ideal machine is the tower crane. Now if we want a crane to carry heavy loads, a hydraulic articulated crane (GHA) truck will be chosen, which can be a hiab or a telescopic. Both will fulfill the same function since they are mounted on a truck. Obviously the capacity of the crane and truck will be taken into account at the time of moving a heavy load, since they can have different weights and be of different volumes.

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Now if you only need a crane that allows you to perform large capacity loads. You can use a self-propelled all-terrain crane, some are 4 × 4. Also, we can find a tow truck, specially designed to assist a vehicle that is in emergency or take it to the tank for making a fault. On the other hand we can find maritime cranes, so called because they are on a ship. And they are designed to perform the manipulations of the containers.

If you wish to deepen we recommend you read the article “Know the main types of cranes “.

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