- February 11, 2019
- Posted by: khawaja senan
- Category: Heavy Equipment
The world of construction is very broad, and knowing what to do at all time is difficult. We are puzzled by the complexity of the subject and the different options, characteristics, classifications or types of machines used in the works, a subject in which not only excavators can be used . There is a world behind that many of the technicians should remember as professionals in the field of architecture.
Here we also talk about the types of heavy machinery used for the construction of streets, avenues, buildings, etc.
In the classification of heavy construction machinery, from the perspective of the works and their activities, a wide variety of equipment is used and affects a wide range of public works (mainly civil engineering) or private works; earthworks, roads, clearings, dams, dredging, drilling tunnels and trenches, excavations or deep foundations. So the teams used are several as well as their dimensions, but the main ones – if we talk about large teams – we can divide them:
- The excavator
- The loader
- The backhoe
- The compactor
- The dump trucks
- The crepa
Machine designed for earthmoving and digging. Self-propelled on wheels or chains. Depending on the work you do, there are different applications:
Front push: Where normally used to dig high banks.
Retro push. It is applied in excavations below ground level zero. (It’s the backhoe)
Bivalve equipment. Although not very common, it is referring to that spoon that is dropped open on the material to be excavated that literally “sink the teeth” and on rising the pots are closed collecting the excavated material.
We can also see the different types of excavators according to:
Attending to its conditioning: Excavators of cable or mechanical and hydraulic.
Attending the translation system: Excavators mounted on chains (tracks), on wheels or tires. On rails and on boats.
Considering the type of operation: Normal or Standard Excavators, jaws, tamber and Rosario.
Currently there is a wide variety of tools, tools and accessories for excavators that provide different functions thanks to current technology and tangible benefits in the architecture we practice. An example from the JCB brand…
Types of heavy equipment for Construction
The construction industry is one of those that have grown the most in recent years in the UAE. It is common to see the construction of both public and private infrastructures that demonstrate the rapid advance of the country. The construction employs hundreds of people and occupies dozens of types of machinery to carry out.
The construction uses a wide variety of tools and machinery. Each of these is used for different purposes and in different types of works. Its wide variety of designs, sizes and weights makes it an arduous task to classify them, since; similarly, there are different factors that are taken into account for their classification. For example, its rules of application, the power source, the transport method or its size, i.e. its weight-volume ratio.
If we are guided by the last factor, the machinery would be classified by: heavy machinery, semi- heavy machinery and light equipment. The semi-bag is of medium dimension, like the excavators. Backhoe loaders and small cranes. They can be confused as to be the heavy, since it has the same functions and similar designs, but, in terms of dimensions and the work they can do, they are smaller.
The specialized light construction equipment is of small dimensions. In this classification we find machinery such as water pumps, compressors, steel cutters and pavement, among others. The heavy machinery, which we are interested in knowing, is of great proportions. As a point of comparison we can use a conventional car, of which its size is a maximum of 1/3 of the machinery.
All types of machinery require trained personnel for their operation, but the heavy ones can only be handled by highly trained and expert personnel, due to the complexity of their controls and the functions of the machinery. Its main uses are focused on the movement of large proportions of land or water or other large elements, during excavations, transportation, mining, and so on.
One of the vital parts of the construction work is those related to the correct selection and use of the equipment or machines to be used in them.
Most common types of equipment
From the perspective of its use in construction, a wide variety of heavy machinery equipment is used. These equipments are mainly used in civil engineering works, both public and private. Among its most common uses are: earthworks, paving and flattening of roads, clearing, construction of dams, dredging, drilling of tunnels and trenches, excavations and deep foundations, to mention a few.
Here enter those that have large geometric proportions equating them with reference to traditional street vehicles, has considerable volume and weight, and need a trained operator who needs a special card to be able to handle them, given the complexity of the controls and functionality from the same. Mainly its use is intended for large earthworks (whether open-pit or in tunnels), movement of heavyweight elements, civil engineering or mining works. Some examples would be; the famous tunnel boring machines, large cranes or the Tipper, excavators, wheel loaders and Dump Truck … etc.
Equipment for light construction
These light equipment are used in civil works of different magnitudes, such as: construction of houses or subdivisions, buildings, warehouses, workshops, make-up and service works such as recreational parks, squares, sports areas and public entertainment.
Some of the machineries used in these works are the mixers, pumps and vibrators for concrete, winches, compressors, water pumps, welding equipment, different types of cutters and rod bending machines, among others.
Machinery for heavy construction
Heavy construction encompasses a variety of works, such as large earth movements, such as roads, dams, clearings, tunneling and trenches, dredging, excavations and deep foundations.
The main equipment used in this type of work, are tractors, loaders, excavators, scrapers, motor-shapers, haulage equipment, compactors, compressors, drilling machines and others.
Light machinery in building
The main equipment used within the building, as stated above, are:
- Tower crane
- Revolving machines
- Manual compactors
- Concrete pumps
- Water pumps
- Welding equipment
- Cutting machines
- Rod bending machines
Heavy machinery for moving land
The main equipment used in earthmoving are:
- Shaping motorcycle
- Drilling machines
- Conveyor belts
- Screens and grids
- Crushing plants
- Asphalt plants
- Concrete plants
- Paver (finisher)
It is used to mix concrete: cement, sand, stone and water. The advantage of using a mixer instead of making the shake Classification of machinery 1 hand is that the concrete mixture is uniform and homogeneous, ensuring its strength. The mixing time depends on the type of equipment used, but it must not be less than two minutes.
There are two types of mixer:
- The one of hopper, that allows to feed the stone and the sand with buggies; Y
- The one of top, in which the components enter the mixer raising them to the height of the entrance mouth, which makes the process slower.
The mixers are also of different sizes, the most common being the 7, 9, 12 and 14 cubic feet capacity.
- Before starting the operation of the mixer, it is important to verify that it is perfectly level. This will avoid forcing the shaft and damaging the equipment in the long term.
- As soon as the emptying task has been completed, the mixer tank should be cleaned with plenty of water. This will prevent concrete remains adhering, which takes space away from the tank, and makes it heavier for its operation.
It has the function of eliminating the air bubbles in the mixture at the moment of its placement, reducing the amount of voids, achieving in this way, a better quality of concrete for the following reasons:
- Densities the concrete mass, improves its resistance to compression.
- Reduces gaps, prevents the entry of substances that can corrode the reinforcing steel.
- Increases the adhesion of concrete to reinforcing steel.
- Improves the aesthetics of the surface in apparent concrete.
- There are electric and gasoline vibrators; heads of square or circular section are also offered and there are several sizes depending on the project.
- The vibrator must enter vertically in the concrete mass, because if it is used in an inclined way, it will return to its vertical position, dragging the mixture with it and generating segregation.
- When emptying the concrete by layers, the vibrator must penetrate the emptied layer and continue about 10 cm more than the previous layer.
- The vibration must end when no air bubbles appear on the surface of the concrete.
- Keep in mind that excessive vibration time can cause the stone to separate from the rest of the mixture.
The machinery is one of the aspects to be taken into account in the construction processes as it is a saving of time and important personnel, these are used in the movements of earth, mixed cement and compaction among others. Classification of machinery 5
- Classification of machinery 6 Tractor: It is a large machine used to move large volumes of land, in the front has a shovel that is responsible for the movement of the earth.
- Excavator: It is a machine that has a shovel in the final part of an understandable arm; this is used to load land that can be deposited in another part of the land or in a truck.
- Dump truck (Vagoneta): They have a tray in the back used for the earthwork; normally they are denominated in function of their load capacity in cubic meters of load 3m³, 6m³, 9m³, and 15m ³.
- Stirrer, blender, spinner, and dancer: The concrete mixer is very useful in the delivery of ready-mix concrete; it has a rotating container and stirrers to homogenize the mixture.
Equipment and heavy machinery for construction
- Emptying cars.
- Breaking hammers.
- Belt conveyors.
- Filler compactor.
- Pots for concrete.
- Pumps for concrete.
- Cutting machines
- Mechanical shovel.
Safety and considerations in the operation of heavy equipment
The operation of heavy machinery will always be an important contributor of risks to the operator, the stability of the company, the community and the infrastructure. In this way, the following will show the classification of machinery and heavy equipment as well as the recommendations for its management, in order to implement control measures and improvement plans in the prevention of work accidents. To classify the machinery are considered various aspects such as: Work to be done: According to the activity we can find earthmoving, compaction of materials, lifting and cargo handling, preparation of materials, transport of materials and demolitions.
Load capacity: Machinery is classified according to its capacity (low, medium and high).
Work area: Depends if the work system involves motion machines without rotation with limited rotation or with rotation. Form of mobilization: Tires, caterpillars, rails and static
Considerations in the operation of the machines
- The machine should not remain alone at any time. If the machine is a bulldozer or excavator type, it can only be parked once the blade, scarifier or shovel is properly supported on the ground.
- The maximum slope of the terrain where bulldozer type machine is used will be 30%.
- The buldozer for parking must remain at least 3 meters away from the edge of excavations, ditches, wells to avoid collapse of the ground.
- When the machine is not in use it should remain off, support the bucket, shovel and bucket on the ground and apply the brake.
- The stabilizers of the bucket arm as well as its revolving area must be activated for the mobilization of backhoe excavators.
- For backhoe loaders of tires in trenching work, the stabilizers and the bucket should be placed on the ground.
- For crawler backhoe loaders before starting work on sloped ground, the condition of the brakes must be checked.
- On sloping terrain, work must be done facing the slope.
- The worker must be notified in writing of their risks during the operation of machinery.
- The operator must have academic training and work experience in the handling of heavy machinery, by presenting the academic certificates that accredit it and / or empirical training through labor certifications as operator of at least one year of experience. In either case, the worker will present written and / or practical evidence to specifically demonstrate the ability of the machine to operate in order to verify such situation.
- The operator must demonstrate knowledge in the operation of the controls and how to stop the operation of the same.
- The machine must have certificates of preventive and routine maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer’s operating manual.
- The operator must always check the operating conditions before starting an activity, checking the engine oil level and the radiator water level. If he finds an anomaly he should not start the work or cancel it if it is in progress and report to the person in charge of the area.
- Workers not involved in the work should not remain within the scope of the machinery.
- The machinery and equipment must remain in a good state of cleanliness and cleanliness.
- The areas subject to the activity must have adequate lighting conditions when the weather so requires or the work is carried out at night.
- During the descent of the machine the operator must use the elements arranged. Ladder, steps, ramps, he should never jump. It must be held with both hands both for the descent and for the ascent.
- The operator must, before starting activities, put on the safety belt and adjust the chair to its comfort level according to their physical conditions.
- To carry out maintenance and repair work, the machine must be switched off by removing the ignition key, with the control, safety and braking controls activated, on solid ground. It must remain separate from the rotating parts.
- No machine can be modified, this goes against security.
- Every machine must have emergency attention elements such as a minimum 10-pound extinguisher and first-aid kit with case inspections.
- Before turning on the machine, all the controls must remain neutral so that there is no untimely start of the equipment.
- Do not start the engine without first verifying that there is no personnel present in the turning radius of the machine.
- During the fuel supply, ignition sources must not be present.
- The batteries must count the respective inspection to avoid short circuit.
- During parking, the machine will be placed on level surfaces and its cab and keys must be locked so that unauthorized or trained personnel have access to the machine, which could cause accidents of considerable scope.
- Do not transport people inside the machine or hanging on it.
- Never work with a defective machine or overloaded or over pass its capacity. Inform your immediate manager or your company’s security officer.
- For tire machines the inflation pressure must be monitored.
- There should always be an inspection of public and underground utility networks. Thus, the present is a small contribution to the awareness of the operator during work with the aim of improving working conditions, increase productivity and reduce accident rates and losses for this concept.