What is hydraulic excavator, its types, parts and functions?

Hydraulic Excavators: they are equipment that are used in a wide range of works linked, of course, with the excavation procedure. In general, they are used when the material to be excavated is located below ground level, in the case of those that are extremely small, with 3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 and d3 of capacity, it can be said that the same, apart from carrying out operations in certain places, such as sewers and water lines through an operation carried out with cables, can also do excavation works for everything that is related to the foundations along with the urbanizations.

As for the excavator machines that have a larger capacity, it is possible to obtain in the market those that have a 2 1/2 to 3 and d3 capacity. It is a kind of machine that has a great depth and, at the same time, a remarkable productivity. For these reasons mentioned, they have become an important way in all the new applications of the excavation work in general, but also of the quarry works along with all the handling of the materials. That is why they have managed to move, for example, loaders on tires, shovels and all the daggers that can also perform the listed jobs, but with a level of efficiency clearly lower than those of large capacity excavators.

Types of excavators

Excavators with spoon: They are also called shovels or mechanical shovels. They are used for vertical type excavations, being especially useful in the production of wells and in the field of mining. They can be mounted on tires or on tracks , being able to turn on themselves with the help of an axis of up to 360º.

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Backhoes: They are also known as hydraulic excavators. These equipment are popular for being of more adjusted price without sacrificing power. In addition to the mechanical shovels, they hit the ground from the top down and are faster when loading material. The shovel has the spoon up, is capable of downloading from higher and is used mostly in the field of mining.

The main difference:

  • It is because backhoes tend to move on tires, and when starting an excavation they have to rise to rest on integrated hydraulic jacks , being faster in the loading and unloading of material than the conventional excavator.
  • The bucket excavators do not need stabilization while doing their job and also have a larger bucket , which allows more power.

Components of a hydraulic Excavator

The hydraulic excavator has different mechanisms that operate differently or at different levels.

  • The gable:
    This component is the base of the mechanical arm, in the boom is 2 cylinders of the hydraulic system that provides the necessary power to make heavy excavations, this component of the hydraulic excavator moves as with a wrist and an elbow, very similar to an arm human that also joins in 2 parts: arm and wrist. The cylinders are part of the hydraulic system, are composed of a cavity filled with oil and a piston that will move when pressing with the hydraulic oil by means of valves.
  • The engine:
    A hydraulic excavator has a diesel engine and also receives help from the hydraulic motor, since the hydraulic excavator can use the energy generated by the hydraulic motor to move.
  • The crown:
    The hydraulic excavator has the ability to rotate on its own axis 360 degrees, allowing a wide range of scope, to excavate and discard the debris elsewhere, or depositing it directly on trucks, without moving from place.
  • The cabin:
    The cab must have a totally panoramic view and is positioned above the crown, the seat should be comfortable and some models of hydraulic excavators, have a closed cabin (approved noise) and air conditioning, and others with open cockpit.
  • The rims and supports:
    The excavator has some small supports, which are embedded in the ground allowing it to displace the opposite force of the excavation, allowing it to withstand the power generated by the hydraulic system. Tires, the pneumatic wheels that some of these models of excavators have, are used to move on solid surfaces, such as: asphalt, concrete, gravel.

    Caterpillars, this type of tires are identical to those used by war tanks; and they are generally used in less stable soils, such as sand, mud; This type of “wheel” occupies a greater surface, because of the weight and traction tend to sink in the ground; increasing the traction when digging. The models of excavators with caterpillars, can not move by themselves, they have to be transported by another means of transport.


Within the radius of action when handling loads, you must avoid at all costs that you are passing over the heads of people working in the vicinity of the machine.

Transportation.ae has large fleet of rental excavator machines for excavation services in Dubai, UAE. You can contact us for a free quote or any other related information.

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