What is a site Dumper or Dump truck?

To transport loads in different areas, such as in the case of construction or agricultural activity, a specific type of vehicle is used. The dump truck has a special receptacle that can be tilted until completely emptied.

Its operation is based on a hydraulic system located in an area of ​​the container box, being able to tilt it to the rear or side, depending on the work.

A dump truck is no more than any other type of truck, that is, it is a heavy-duty, high-volume vehicle; but it has a particularity: It has a box in the back of steel / iron resistant and simple design; on one of the sides it has a hydraulic arm of great power and height to be able to tilt it to the driver’s need.

It is used to load, transport and discharge elsewhere. It has a hydraulic system that can lift the front end of the box and thus pour the load towards the back. The material that is inside the dump truck will fall in the desired place. Generally they are bulk cargoes, since the fall should not damage anything.

The box can be filled in different ways, which usually depend on the item and the usual work. It can be with:

  • With a backhoe or mechanical shovel
  • With a chimango (for cereals in the field)
  • By gravity (placed below a filler neck, the hopper is located above)
  • With a forklift (rarely, since then you have to unload in the same way, usually used for first quality bricks or seen).
  • Manually (it is rare, only happens in cases where it is difficult to access the truck or other machines)
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Parts of a dump truck

The dump truck has the basic parts of a platform truck, with some small aggregates. A control console inside the truck (in the oldest was on the outside) and obviously a different cargo box. Let’s review:

Tractor:
It is the truck itself – Vehicle on which the components of the truck are installed. The shape of this is variable and depends on the type of truck and who makes it.

Box:
It is the receptacle where the material to be transported is placed. The box is articulated to the frame of the truck through a hinge and a hydraulic arm that is located in the back.

Hydraulic system for unloading:
With a tank, valves, hoses and hydraulic cylinders whose function is to control the movements of the receptacle at the time of unloading material. Cylinders may be installed in the bottom of the box or on the sides of the box. It is a composite machine.

Internal or electric combustion engine:
It can be diesel or gasoline, or even electric. It is to generate pressure and that the fluids do the work.

How a dump truck works?

The dump truck usually has a hydraulic mechanism to dump the contents of the box. This mechanism can be of two types:

  • The most usual type is the one that uses hydraulic pistons to lift the part of the dump truck body that is closest to the cab. The tipping box will tilt and pour everything that is contained inside.
  • Those that have a reinforced panel located vertically inside the overturning box itself. Through hydraulic cylinders it is held in place. The cylinders push the same toward the back area of ​​the overturning box, thus dropping everything that is inside it. The contents go through the folding door that is in the back.
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For the dump mechanism to be used it is necessary that the truck is turned on. The power for the truck and for the pouring mechanism is provided by an internal combustion engine.

Characteristics of the dump truck

  • Dump trucks can bring a box that overturns backwards or sideways. The inclination has an angle of about 30º or 45º.
  • The material that is inside the box is retained by a gate that can be locked from the cabin and has a hinge on the top.
  • The dump truck has a single or double axel in the back.
  • They are always rear-wheel drive.
  • The box of the dump truck is usually rectangular in shape. Sometimes rocker boxes are made that are shaped like a funnel. This allows large rocks to fall on one another and not move.
  • The boxes in the form of a hopper or funnel do not have a gate and to tip the material it must be inclined about 70º.

Applications of the dump truck

  • The dump truck can transport content from excavation sites to dumps and embankments.
  • It transports materials from warehouses to embankments.
  • Moving material that is in quarries to the plant where the raw material is processed.
  • It is usually used mainly in construction and mining work.
  • In construction its use is ideal because it can transport loose materials such as: Earth, gravel, sand, mixtures, etc.
  • In the agricultural sector, it is used to unload cereals, which were loaded through a chimango.


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